X-ray generation using ultrashort high-energy laser pulses is an attractive technique for industry, medicine, and material science. In particular, the generated X-rays can be applied in X-ray spectroscopy and diffraction measurements.
The use of femtosecond pulses enables the generation of X-rays with femtosecond temporal and angstrom-scale spatial resolution, allowing direct observation of atom-level structural changes in different samples. The properties of X-rays generated by femtosecond laser pulses are comparable to that of synchrotrons, but laser systems are significantly simpler and more compact than synchrotrons.
The brightness of generated X-rays scales linearly with the laser repetition rate. The brightness and conversion efficiency of X-rays using high-repetition-rate and high-average-power PHAROS femtosecond lasers are comparable to those achieved using multi-millijoule pulsed laser sources. This suggests that femtosecond laser systems such as PHAROS and CARBIDE are the solutions in the quest for tabletop X-ray sources.
Taking a snapshot of the triplet excited state of an OLED organometallic luminophore using X-rays
G. Smolentsev, C. J. Milne, A. Guda, K. Haldrup, J. Szlachetko, N. Azzaroli, C. Cirelli, G. Knopp, R. Bohinc, S. Menzi et al., Nature Communications 1 (11) (2020).
X-ray pulse emission of alkali metal halide salts irradiated by femtosecond laser pulses
A. Koroliov, J. Reklaitis, K. Varsockaja, D. Germanas, A. Plukis, and V. Remeikis, Applied Physics B 9 (126) (2020).
Structural dynamics upon photoexcitation-induced charge transfer in a dicopper(i)–disulfide complex
M. Naumova, D. Khakhulin, M. Rebarz, M. Rohrmüller, B. Dicke, M. Biednov, A. Britz, S. Espinoza, B. Grimm‑Lebsanft, M. Kloz et al., Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics 9 (20), 6274-6286 (2018).
Generation of plasma X-ray sources via high repetition rate femtosecond laser pulses
A. Baguckis, A. Plukis, J. Reklaitis, V. Remeikis, L. Giniūnas, and M. Vengris, Applied Physics B 12 (123) (2017).